Issue 8 – 24 April 2017 & 25 April 2017- rattuos
In the New Testament Jesus is said to have used at least two names for God. One is ’Avinu’ translated as ’Our Father’. However on the cross he calls him ’Eli’ or ‘Eloi’ and asks why he has forsaken him. I mention this because it is important for the enlightened to understand which Gods are invoked. We can travel back to Egypt to find out a bit more. But we can also find this El in other places. The Nordic fire god is called Eldr for example and identified with Surtr the god who wins the final battle between the gods called Ragnarok. Moses had a priest called Eleazar who was his nephew, the son of Aaron the first high priest of the Israelites. This name translates as ‘my god has helped’ and is found consistently thereafter in the bible:
“Five other men named Eleazar are briefly mentioned in the Hebrew Bible:
Eleazar, called Avaran who slays a battle elephant in I Maccabees.
The root of this name is ‘el’
“’Ēl (or ’Il, written aleph–lamed, e.g. Ugaritic, Phoenician, Syriac, Arabic, cognate to Akkadian: ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning “god” or “deity“, or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major Ancient Near East deities. A rarer spelling, “‘ila”, represents the predicate form in Old Akkadian and in Amorite. The word is derived from the Proto-Semitic archaic biliteral ʔ-L, meaning “god”.
So we might just think the word El means ‘god’ rather than any particular one, however that is not really the case.
“In northwest Semitic use, El was both a generic word for any god and the special name or title of a particular god who was distinguished from other gods as being “the god”. El is listed at the head of many pantheons. In some Canaanite and Ugaritic sources, El played a role as father of the gods or of creation” Wikipedia
We also find the name used in the Bible as ‘El Elyon’
“Elyon (Biblical Hebrew עליון; Masoretic ʿElyōn) is an epithet of the God of the Israelites in the Hebrew Bible. ʾĒl ʿElyōn is usually rendered in English as “God Most High”, and similarly in the Septuagint as “Ο ΘΕΟΣ Ο ΥΨΙΣΤΟΣ” (“God the highest”).
The critical scholar and Reform rabbi Abraham Geiger in the 19th century asserted that Elyōn was a word of late origin, dating it to the time of the Maccabees. However, its use in the Ugarit (modern Ras Shamra, Syria) tablets has proven it to be pre-Mosaic (Hertz 1936).” Wikipedia
But some see that as the ‘god of high places’ ie the mountain tops where sacrifices were made. Abraham for example was about to sacrifice his son Isaac on a mountain top. Moses ascended a mountain to get the 10 Commandments.
We might even see this root in the word Islam uses for God – Allah:
“Allah (/’ælə, ‘ɑːlə, əl’lɑː/; Arabic: الله, translit. Allāh, pronounced [ɑɫ’ɫɑh] ( listen)) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions. In the English language, the word traditionally refers to God in Islam. The word is thought to be derived by contraction from al–ilāh, which means “the god”, and is related to El and Elohim, the Hebrew words for God.
“The first occurrence of the name is in Genesis 17:1, “And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him, I am El Shaddai; walk before me, and be thou perfect.” Similarly, in Genesis 35:11 God says to Jacob, “I am El Shaddai: be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins”. According to Exodus 6:2–3, Shaddai was the name by which God was known to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob…..The origin and meaning of “Shaddai” are obscure, and a variety of hypotheses have been put forward.
Shaddai related to wilderness or mountains
According to Ernst Knauf, “El Shaddai” means “God of the Wilderness” and originally would not have had a doubled “d”. He argues that it is a loan-word from “Israelite” Hebrew, where the word had a “sh”, into “Judaen (and hence, Biblical) Hebrew”, where it would have been “śaday” with the sound śin. In this theory, the word is related to the word “sadé” meaning “the (uncultivated) field”, the area of hunting (as in the distinction between beasts of the field, חיות השדה, and cattle, בהמות). He points out that the name is found in Thamudic inscriptions (as ‘lšdy), in a personal name Śaday`ammī used in Egypt from the Late Bronze Age till Achaemenid times, and even in the Punic name `bdšd’ (Servant of Shadé or Shada).
We might also note this:
“In Canaanite mythology, El builds a desert sanctuary with his children and his two wives, leading to speculation that at one point El was a desert god…..Before El’s revelation with the name of Yahweh, it is said in Genesis 14:18–20 that Abraham accepted the blessing of El, when Melchizedek, the king of Salem and high priest of its deity El Elyon blessed him. One scholarly position is that the identification of Yahweh with Ēl is late, that Yahweh was earlier thought of as only one of many gods, and not normally identified with Ēl. Another is that in much of the Hebrew Bible the name El is an alternate name for Yahweh, but in the Elohist and Priestly traditions it is conceived as an earlier name than Yahweh. The name Yahweh is used in the Bible Tanakh in the first book of Genesis 2:4; and Genesis 4:26 says that at that time, people began to “call upon the name of the LORD”.
Complex isn’t it – especially if one takes the Bible to be completely truthful and no less than the ‘word of God’. But if we go back to Egypt we find this desert god too:
“Set /sɛt/ or Seth (/sɛθ/; also spelled Setesh, Sutekh, Setekh, or Suty) is a god of the desert, storms, disorder, violence, and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion. In Ancient Greek, the god’s name is given as Sēth (Σήθ). Set is not, however, a god to be ignored or avoided; he has a positive role where he is employed by Ra on his solar boat to repel Apep, the serpent of Chaos. Set had a vital role as a reconciled combatant. He was lord of the red (desert) land where he was the balance to Horus‘ role as lord of the black (soil) land” Wkipedia
We might note how Sutekh is usurped by this Horus who is often portrayed as a child sitting on his mother’s knee, a protoype for the much later depiction of Jesus. Horus is never a ‘father’ always a ‘son’. And there is a possibility that the Greek tales of the gods may explain something here too. According to the Greeks the original creators – the heavens (Ouranos) and Earth (Gaia) were usurped by their son Kronos – who is equated with Saturn (Set?) and El. He in turn was usurped by his son Zeus who is equated with Jupiter, hence the Roman Jove and Hebrew Jehovah. We might even see in Zeus the name Jesus and in Christianity we must note the Trinity is the Father, the Son (Jesus) and the Holy Ghost. Also noteworthy is that at the time of Christ the Roman empire was seeing its first emperor also with initials JC – Julius Caesar. The State God had been Jupiter or Jove but perhaps it became Mars, the war god from that time. Horus is also the ‘war god’. Julius was assassinated on the Ides of March, sacred to Mars, and his successor Octavian (Augustus) did this:
“Although the center of Mars’ worship was originally located outside the sacred boundary of Rome (pomerium), Augustus made the god a renewed focus of Roman religion by establishing the Temple of Mars Ultor in his new forum.” Wikipedia
But perhaps of more note is that:
“In the mythic genealogy and founding myths of Rome, Mars was the father of Romulus and Remus with Rhea Silvia. His love affair with Venus symbolically reconciled the two different traditions of Rome’s founding; Venus was the divine mother of the hero Aeneas, celebrated as the Trojan refugee who “founded” Rome several generations before Romulus laid out the city walls.” Wikipedia
Julius Caesar would have us believe that he was descended from the gods.
Aeneas is also considered the father of Romulus and Remus and is the classic warrior, so may be equated with Mars too. His father Anchises was the lover of Venus and was killed by Zeus for daring to have an affair with the goddess also known as Aphrodite. But the whole story of Troy tells how the young prince Paris abducted the already married Helen (Venus). It is a weird story and worth retelling that alone:
“ The Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite details how Aphrodite came to love Anchises. It begins by describing how only the three virgin goddesses (Athena, Artemis, and Hestia) are immune to Aphrodite’s powers. She has made gods and goddesses fall in love with mortals. Not even Zeus was able to escape her powers and to prevent her from bragging, he forces her to fall in love with the mortal Anchises.
Aphrodite first happens upon Anchises on the hills of Mount Ida, where he is grazing his cattle, and she immediately falls in love with him. Anchises is described as having the beauty of an immortal. Aphrodite goes to Cyprus and bathes. Then she returns to Troy, disguised as a maiden, and finds Anchises alone in a hut. When Anchises first sees Aphrodite, he is convinced that she is a goddess, a grace, or a nymph. She convinces him that she is princess from Phrygia and that Hermes brought her there to wed him. Anchises is overcome with desire for her and declares that he must have her immediately. He removes her clothes and makes love to her.
After they make love, Aphrodite puts Anchises into a deep sleep and dresses herself. When she is finished dressing, she wakes him up and reveals herself to him. When Anchises realizes that he has slept with a goddess he is terrified and begs to be killed because no good comes from sleeping with a goddess. Aphrodite comforts him by telling him that she will bear him a son by the name of Aeneas, who will be respected among the Trojans and whose offspring will prosper. To further comfort Anchises she goes on to tell him about two relationships: the relationship between Zeus and Ganymede and the relationship between Eos and Tithonus. Both relationships are between an immortal and a mortal and both relationships have happy endings. She then details how their son will be raised by nymphs until he is five years old, at which time she will bring Aeneas to him. Then she warns him not to reveal that she is the mother of his child or Zeus will smite him and she leaves” Wikipedia
‘Paris’ who abducted Helen and started the Trojan war is also called Alexander and we have to have a look at the spiritual tale that surrounds him next:
“In celebration of the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, Lord Zeus, father of the Greek pantheon, hosted a banquet on Mount Olympus. Every deity and demi-god had been invited, except Eris, the goddess of strife (no one wanted a troublemaker at a wedding). For revenge, Eris threw the golden Apple of Discord inscribed with the word “Kallisti” — “For the fairest” — into the party, provoking a squabble among the attendant goddesses over for whom it had been meant.
The goddesses thought to be the most beautiful were Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite, and each one claimed the apple. They started a quarrel so they asked Zeus to choose one of them. Knowing that choosing any of them would bring him the hatred of the other two, Zeus did not want to take part in the decision. He thus appointed Paris to select the most beautiful.
Escorted by Hermes, the three goddesses bathed in the spring of Mount Ida and approached Paris as he herded his cattle. Having been given permission by Zeus to set any conditions he saw fit, Paris required that the goddesses undress before him. (Alternatively, the goddesses themselves chose to disrobe to show all their beauty.) Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful, so the goddesses attempted to bribe him to choose among them – Hera offered ownership of all of Europe and Asia; Athena offered skill in battle, wisdom and the abilities of the greatest warriors; and Aphrodite offered the love of the most beautiful woman on Earth, Helen of Sparta. Paris chose Aphrodite— and, therefore, Helen.
Helen was already married to King Menelaus of Sparta (a fact Aphrodite neglected to mention), so Paris had to raid Menelaus’s house to steal Helen from him (according to some accounts, she fell in love with Paris and left willingly). The Greeks’ expedition to retrieve Helen from Paris in Troy is the mythological basis of the Trojan War. This triggered the war because Helen was famous for her beauty throughout Achaea (ancient Greece), and had many suitors of extraordinary ability. Therefore, following Odysseus‘s advice, her father Tyndareus made all suitors promise to defend Helen’s marriage to the man he chose for her. When Paris took her to Troy, Menelaus invoked this oath. Helen’s other suitors—who between them represented the lion’s share of Achaea’s strength, wealth and military prowess—were obligated to help bring her back. Thus, the whole of Greece moved against Troy in force. The Trojan War had begun.” Wikipedia
Of course it does not end well for Paris who like Alexander the Great (some 600 years later) died young, killed in Troy. Anyway we may now return to which God is which in the Bible.
Now bear in mind that Jesus was actually said to have been killed by a Roman soldier using a spear to pierce his side while he was on the cross. This iconography is very important:
“The spear of Mars
The spear is the instrument of Mars in the same way that Jupiter wields the lightning bolt, Neptune the trident, and Saturn the scythe or sickle. A relic or fetish called the spear of Mars was kept in a sacrarium at the Regia, the former residence of the Kings of Rome. The spear was said to move, tremble or vibrate at impending war or other danger to the state, as was reported to occur before the assassination of Julius Caesar. When Mars is pictured as a peace-bringer, his spear is wreathed with laurel or other vegetation, as on the Ara Pacis or a coin of Aemilianus” Wikipedia
Kronos, or Cronus or Saturn, used his sickle (often seen carried by this time god) on his father – it should be said with his mother’s help. She is Gaia or Earth and she gave the sickle to him to do this. It is hard to determine exactly what happened to him – there is a selection to choose from:
“Accounts of the fate of Cronus after the Titanomachy differ. In Homeric and other texts he is imprisoned with the other Titans in Tartarus. In Orphic poems, he is imprisoned for eternity in the cave of Nyx. Pindar describes his release from Tartarus, where he is made King of Elysium by Zeus. In another version, the Titans released the Cyclopes from Tartarus, and Cronus was awarded the kingship among them, beginning a Golden Age. In Virgil‘s Aeneid, it is Latium to which Saturn (Cronus) escapes and ascends as king and lawgiver, following his defeat by his son Jupiter (Zeus).
One other account referred by Robert Graves (who claims to be following the account of the Byzantine mythographer Tzetzes) it is said that Cronus was castrated by his son Zeus just like he had done with his father Uranus before. However the subject of a son castrating his own father, or simply castration in general, was so repudiated by the Greek mythographers of that time that they suppressed it from their accounts until the Christian era (when Tzetzes wrote).” Wikipedia
But what we see in the ‘above’ is exactly what we see ‘below’. Here we have a President, the most powerful man on the planet, but today he is a new president. Up there they have a chief god, but suddenly and somewhat violently he is a new chief god. So we see how Christianity evicts the pagan gods in Britain, sometimes it must be said rather violently. And we see how the Romans tormented the Christians before adopting their god and installing their high priest (Peter – so similar to Pater meaning father) as Pope in Rome. We might also note how the battle between Protestants and the Catholics may not have been exactly what we thought it was. The new ‘Baptists’ and Quakers were teetotal, almost ascetic by comparison to the Catholics. These protestants had much more in common with the cousin of Jesus – John the Baptist who lived in the ‘desert’ and was an ascetic – than they did with Jesus who turned water into wine and whose main ritual was communion – drinking wine before his altar. The Muslims are tee total too and above their mosques we see the crescent moon symbol which like the scimitar swords of the Saracens looks like that sickle. But above churches we see the cross which is also represented in the great two handed swords of the crusaders. Can we honestly say these are both dedicated to the same god? Is that why there is constant war on the planet. If so we need to understand what the gods are fighting about and why the last war between them – Ragnarok – is so important. But our religions are in denial – their god is the chief god end of story.
In fact sometimes the chief god is described as ‘creator of heaven and earth’ and in that we may see a glimpse of what is behind the creation myth of the Greeks. They only start with the Heavens and Earth – Ouranos and Gaia – and tell that they were overthrown. Had they overthrown their own father too?
Obviously no one now believes that Zeus can hurl his thunderbolts at Earth. Scientists discovered recently that a comet hit us only 13000 years ago and that this was recorded on a stone column in Turkey whose pictures of ‘animals’ and a decapitated man turn out to be advanced star charts fixing the date and the terrible consequences. A layer of ash in an ice core in Greenland confirms this date and how an ice age resulted. Perhaps we should be more careful about upsetting the gods with our cavalier, corporate approach to destroying nature here. Last week a massive asteroid flew past us this week just a very large one will come much closer:
“The MONSTER asteroid that could destroy a COUNTRY and WILL skim the Earth
A MONSTER 0.6 mile-wide asteroid that could devastate a whole country if it struck the planet is set for a scarily close pass of Earth.
Experts have known about the dangerous space rock since it was discovered in 1999.
Named 1999 AN10 after its discovery date, and the asteroid is being monitored because of an upcoming close pass in just over a decade on August 7, 2027.
Last Wednesday the 0.8-mile asteroid 2014 JO25 passed us at a distance of 1.1million miles, which was still classed as a close pass.
But, 1999 AN10 will come in much closer.
Discussing the pass of 2014 JO25, a Nasa spokesman said: “Small asteroids pass within this distance of Earth several times each week, but this upcoming close approach is the closest by any known asteroid of this size, or larger, since asteroid Toutatis, a 3.1-mile (five-kilometre) asteroid, which approached within about four lunar distances in September 2004.
“The next known encounter of an asteroid of comparable size will occur in 2027 when the half-mile-wide (800-meter-wide) asteroid 1999 AN10 will fly by at one lunar distance, about 236,000 miles (380,000 kilometres).
It has previously been estimated 1999 AN10 could come in as close as 19,000 miles away, but it is expected to pass at just under the 238,000 mile distance from Earth to the moon.
Experts are confident it will not actually hit us on that date.
A direct impact would produce the same force as thousands of nuclear bombs like that used by the US at Hiroshima in WWII.
But astronomers say the asteroid will pose a threat to the Earth for the next 600 years.
In a scientific paper published in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Andrea Milani, of the mathematics department of the University of Pisa in Italy looked at the probability of an impact.
He wrote: “The Earth passes very close to the orbit of the asteroid 1999 AN10 twice per year, but whether or not this asteroid can have a close approach depends upon the timing of its passage across the ecliptic plane. ”
The ‘gods’ are at war as predicted by the Icelandic saga of Ragnarok:
“In Norse mythology, Ragnarök is a series of future events, including a great battle, foretold to ultimately result in the death of a number of major figures (including the gods Odin, Thor, Týr, Freyr, Heimdallr, and Loki), the occurrence of various natural disasters, and the subsequent submersion of the world in water. Afterward, the world will resurface anew and fertile, the surviving and returning gods will meet, and the world will be repopulated by two human survivors. Ragnarök is an important event in Norse mythology, and has been the subject of scholarly discourse and theory throughout the history of Germanic studies….The word ragnarök as a whole is then usually interpreted as the “final destiny of the gods.”…..
‘It sates itself on the life-blood
of fated men,
paints red the powers’ homes
with crimson gore.
Black become the sun’s beams
in the summers that follow,
weathers all treacherous.
Do you still seek to know? And what?
Brothers will fight
and kill each other,
will defile kinship.
It is harsh in the world,
—an axe age, a sword age
—shields are riven—
a wind age, a wolf age—
before the world goes headlong.
No man will have
mercy on another.’
The gods then do battle with the invaders: Odin is swallowed whole and alive fighting the wolf Fenrir, causing his wife Frigg her second great sorrow (the first being the death of her son, the god Baldr). Odin’s son Víðarr avenges his father by rending Fenrir’s jaws apart and stabbing it in the heart with his spear, thus killing the wolf. The serpent Jörmungandr opens its gaping maw, yawning widely in the air, and is met in combat by Thor. Thor, also a son of Odin and described here as protector of the earth, furiously fights the serpent, defeating it, but Thor is only able to take nine steps afterward before collapsing. The god Freyr fights Surtr and loses. After this, people flee their homes, and the sun becomes black while the earth sinks into the sea, the stars vanish, steam rises, and flames touch the heavens….” Wikipedia
Asteroid, comet, global warming or WW3 – all are too close for comfort. The envoy of the real God has been murdered here and revenge will come swiftly. Humans and Nature are just the ‘collateral’ cost of this completely avoidable conflict foretold by so many unheeded prophets. Nothing can control the beasts we humans have ‘incorporated’ whose ravenous hunger for profit will never be satisfied until nothing remains alive.
25 April 2017
I will continue with this name of god this morning. The Roman God (and planet) we call Jupiter takes his name from the Indo European Dios Pater, literally meaning father of the gods. We might also note the possibility ‘father of the Jews’ in that name. The God of Judaism has various names in the bible but the sacred name was considered to by YWHW pronounced Yahweh but this was supposed to be a secret name. The name Jehovah was commonly used to protect it. The Romans actually called their god Iovis or Iove which we would pronounce Yovay and much later Jove. He was an ancient Italian God taken over by the Romans. We should look at the article on this. He is a very important influence or power even now:
“Jupiter, also Jove (Latin: Iūpiter [‘juːpɪtɛr] or Iuppiter [‘jʊppɪtɛr], gen. Iovis [‘jɔwɪs]), is the god of sky and thunder and king of the gods in Ancient Roman religion and mythology. Jupiter was the chief deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras, until Christianity became the dominant religion of the Empire. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome, to establish principles of Roman religion such as offering, or sacrifice…..
The Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of the Greek Zeus, and in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune and Pluto. Each presided over one of the three realms of the universe: sky, the waters, and the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was also a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight, usually but not always identified with Jupiter…..
The cult of Iuppiter Latiaris was the most ancient known cult of the god: it was practised since very remote times near the top of the Mons Albanus on which the god was venerated as the high protector of the Latin League under the hegemony of Alba Longa….
Festivals of viniculture and wine were devoted to Jupiter….
The feriae of December 23 were devoted to a major ceremony in honour of Acca Larentia (or Larentina), in which some of the highest religious authorities participated (probably including the Flamen Quirinalis and the pontiffs). The Fasti Praenestini marks the day as feriae Iovis, as does Macrobius….
The Latin name Iuppiter originated as a vocative compound of the Old Latin vocative *Iou and pater (“father”) and came to replace the Old Latin nominative case *Ious. Jove is a less common English formation based on Iov-, the stem of oblique cases of the Latin name. Linguistic studies identify the form *Iou-pater as deriving from the Indo-European vocative compound *Dyēu-pəter (meaning “O Father Sky-god”; nominative: *Dyēus-pətēr)…..
Some epithets describe a particular aspect of the god, or one of his functions:
Jove Aegiochus, Jove “Holder of the Goat or Aegis”, as the father of Aegipan.
Jupiter Caelus, Jupiter as the sky or heavens; see also Caelus.
Jupiter Caelestis, “Heavenly” or “Celestial Jupiter”…..
You will note that the word Iove is deemed to have been applied for some linguistic reason to the god they knew more or less as Jupiter. Certainly they do not relate it to Yahweh. But later in the article above we find this dropped in:
If we look a bit deeper here we find that these people arrived around 1200BC in Italy:
“The Italics were all the peoples who spoke an idiom belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages and had settled in the Italian peninsula. The first Italic tribes, the Latino-Falisci (or “Latino-Veneti”, if the membership of the ancient Veneti is also accepted), entered Italy across the eastern Alpine passes into the plain of the Po River about 1200 BC” Wikipedia
So next perhaps we should look at the name Yahweh. We can note that the Israelites trace their ancestor to Abraham who was born in Iraq but moved with his family or tribe. His grandson Jacob was also named Israel and went to live in Egypt where they tell us the tribe stayed for around 400 years until Moses took them to the land we know now as Israel around 1500BC (if the story is true). They seem to have lived with other tribes in the area for hundreds of years and the first king – David – is dated to around 1000BC. I have mentioned above how the names for God in the bible include El so we must see when Yahweh became the accepted name for God.
“Yahweh (/’jɑːhweɪ/, or often /’jɑːweɪ/ in English; Hebrew: יהוה) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah, and the ancient historical form of the Abrahamic God. His exact origins are disputed, although they reach back to the early Iron Age and even the Late Bronze: his name may have begun as an epithet of El, head of the Bronze Age Canaanite pantheon, but the earliest plausible mentions are in Egyptian texts that place him among the nomads of the southern Transjordan. In the oldest biblical literature he is a typical ancient Near Eastern “divine warrior” who leads the heavenly army against Israel’s enemies; he later became the main god of the Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) and of Judah, and over time the royal court and temple promoted Yahweh as the god of the entire cosmos, possessing all the positive qualities previously attributed to the other gods and goddesses. By the end of the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE), the very existence of foreign gods was denied, and Yahweh was proclaimed as the creator of the cosmos and the true god of all the world…..
The Israelites originated as Bronze Age Canaanites, but Yahweh was not initially a Canaanite god. The head of the Canaanite pantheon was El, and one theory is that the name Yahweh is a shortened form of el dū yahwī ṣaba’ôt, “El who creates the hosts”, meaning the heavenly army accompanying El as he marched beside the earthly armies of Israel. But Yahweh’s earliest possible occurrence is as a place-name, “land of Shasu of YHW“, in an Egyptian inscription from the time of Amenhotep III (1402–1363 BCE), the Shasu being nomads from Midian and Edom in northern Arabia. In this case a plausible etymology for the name could be from the root HWY, which would yield the meaning “he blows”, appropriate to a weather divinity.
There is considerable but not universal support for the view that the Egyptian inscriptions refer to Yahweh. The question that arises is how he made his way to the north. A widely accepted hypothesis is that traders brought Yahweh to Israel along the caravan routes between Egypt and Canaan, the Kenite hypothesis, named after one of the groups involved. The strength of the Kenite hypothesis is the way it ties together various points of data, such as the absence of Yahweh from Canaan, his links with Edom and Midian in the biblical stories, and the Kenite or Midianite ties of Moses. However, while it is highly plausible that the Kenites, Midianites and others may have introduced Israel to Yahweh, it is highly unlikely that they did so outside the borders of Israel or under the aegis of Moses, as the Exodus story has it….
Israel emerges into the historical record in the last decades of the 13th century BCE, at the very end of the Late Bronze Age, as the Canaanite city-state system was ending. The milieu from which Israelite religion emerged was accordingly Canaanite. El, “the kind, the compassionate,” “the creator of creatures,” was the chief of the Canaanite gods, and he, not Yahweh, was the original “God of Israel”—the word “Israel” is based on the name El rather than Yahweh. He lived in a tent on a mountain from whose base originated all the fresh waters of the world, with the goddess Asherah as his consort. This pair made up the top tier of the Canaanite pantheon; the second tier was made up of their children, the “seventy sons of Athirat” (a variant of the name Asherah). Prominent in this group was Baal, who had his home on Mount Zaphon; over time Baal became the dominant Canaanite deity, so that El became the executive power and Baal the military power in the cosmos. Baal’s sphere was the thunderstorm with its life-giving rains, so that he was also a fertility god, although not quite the fertility god. Below the seventy second-tier gods was a third tier made up of comparatively minor craftsman and trader deities, with a fourth and final tier of divine messengers and the like.
El and his sons made up the Assembly of the Gods, each member of which had a human nation under his care, and a textual variant of Deuteronomy 32:8–9 describes the sons of El, including Yahweh, each receiving his own people:
When the Most High (Elyon, i.e., El) gave the nations their inheritance, when he separated humanity, he fixed the boundaries of the peoples according to the number of divine beings, for Yahweh’s portion is his people, Jacob his allotted heritage.
In the earliest literature such as the Song of the Sea (Exodus 15:1–18, celebrating Yahweh’s victory over Egypt at the exodus), Yahweh is a warrior for his people, a storm-god typical of ancient Near Eastern myths, marching out from a region to the south or south-east of Israel with the heavenly host of stars and planets that make up his army. Israel’s battles are Yahweh’s battles, Israel’s victories are his victories, and while other peoples have other gods, Israel’s god is Yahweh, who will procure a fertile resting-place for them….” Wikipedia
Bear in mind that the bible was not written until after 700BC at the earliest whether or not it is based upon oral sources. Even so the El name remains in it. Whether the Iove is the same as Yahweh (Pronounced Yahvay) may be debateable but given the above is hardly unlikely.
Perhaps more to the point is how the word Amen came to be incorporated in all Hebrew prayers and thence Christian and Muslim prayers. It is said that this is because it means ‘so be it’ however all other words in the prayers have been translated and we see the words God or Lord used to indicate Yahweh. Why retain ‘Amen’?
Amen was the chief god of Egypt for thousands of years. Especially at the time when the Israelites were said to have lived there. His name means ‘hidden’ and he is one of the 4 primordial Egyptian Gods – the others being ‘Infinity’, ‘Darkness’ and the ‘primordial waters or seas’. This cannot be coincidental really and here he is hiding in all our prayers. So who is our chief god?
“Amun (also Amon, Amen; Greek Ἄμμων Ámmon, Ἅμμων Hámmōn) was a major Ancient Egyptian deity. He was attested since the Old Kingdom together with his wife Amaunet….after the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I (16th century BC), Amun acquired national importance, expressed in his fusion with the Sun god, Ra, as Amun-Ra or Amun-Re.
Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom (with the exception of the “Atenist heresy” under Akhenaten). Amun-Ra in this period (16th to 11th centuries BC) held the position of transcendental, self-created creator deity “par excellence”, he was the champion of the poor or troubled and central to personal piety. His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him. With Osiris, Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods.
As the chief deity of the Egyptian Empire, Amun-Ra also came to be worshipped outside of Egypt, according to the testimony of ancient Greek historiographers in Libya and Nubia. As Zeus Ammon he came to be identified with Zeus in Greece.
….”[Amun] who comes at the voice of the poor in distress, who gives breath to him who is wretched..You are Amun, the Lord of the silent, who comes at the voice of the poor; when I call to you in my distress You come and rescue me…Though the servant was disposed to do evil, the Lord is disposed to forgive. The Lord of Thebes spends not a whole day in anger; His wrath passes in a moment; none remains. His breath comes back to us in mercy….May your ka be kind; may you forgive; It shall not happen again.”
…”All gods are three: Amun, Re and Ptah, whom none equals. He who hides his name as Amun, he appears to the face as Re, his body is Ptah.”.…
If that helps! I think we should know who we call upon and with whom we get angry when it seems that God has forsaken us. He is the god of the poor and as such must be very concerned at the growing inequality and oppression of the poor in our world. Perhaps we take his forgiving nature too much for granted.
The names of god in the bible ‘translated’ as God or Lord are as follows:
•Yahweh (Lord, Jehovah)
•El Elyon (The Most High God)
•Adonai (Lord, Master)
•El Shaddai (Lord God Almighty)
•El Olam (The Everlasting God)
•Jehovah Jireh (The Lord Will Provide)
•Jehovah Rapha (The Lord Who Heals You)
•Jehovah Nissi (The Lord Is My Banner)
•El Qanna (Jealous God)
•Jehovah Mekoddishkem (The Lord Who Sanctifies You)
•Jehovah Shalom (The Lord Is Peace)
•Jehovah Sabaoth (The Lord of Hosts)
•Jehovah Raah (The Lord Is My Shepherd)
•Jehovah Tsidkenu (The Lord Our Righteousness)
•Jehovah Shammah (The Lord Is There)
The helpful article listing what they mean and when they appear is: