The Clairvoyant & Enlightened Times

Issue 38 – 8 August 2017 – rattuos

New map of Universe’s dark matter

By Pallab Ghosh Science correspondent, BBC News

3 August 2017


…..In 1998, two teams of astronomers discovered the expansion of the Universe was accelerating, rather than slowing down, as the theory at the time suggested. Physicists speculated that the acceleration was caused by something they named dark energy.

Since then, observations have indicated that dark energy and dark matter together account for 96% of the Universe. The challenge has been to find ways of studying these invisible phenomena in detail…….

“The standard model of cosmology indicates that the total mass–energy of the universe contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. Wikipedia

It is not an new concept:

“The hypothesis of dark matter knows an elaborate history. In a talk given in 1884, Lord Kelvin estimated the number of dark bodies in the Milky Way galaxy from the observed velocity dispersion of the stars, the speed the stars were orbiting around the center of the galaxy, which he used to estimate the mass of the galaxy, which was different from the mass of stars which can be seen, and concluded that “many of our stars, perhaps a great majority of them, may be dark bodies.”

In 1906 Henri Poincaré in “The Milky Way and Theory of Gases” used “dark matter,” or “matière obscure” in French in discussing Kelvin’s work.

The first to suggest the existence of dark matter (using stellar velocities) was Dutch astronomer Jacobus Kapteyn in 1922. Fellow Dutchman and radio astronomy pioneer Jan Oort also hypothesized the existence of dark matter in 1932”


“In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is an unknown form of energy which is hypothesized to permeate all of space, tending to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain the observations since the 1990s indicating that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate…..

The word occult comes from the Latin which signifies something hidden or covered, the opposite of apocalypse meaning uncovered or revelation. Most of the universe is occult to us but so is much of our world.

Consider some mighty bridge. You can see it but you cannot see most of it – its designer and the vision, the team that built it, the plans, the materials used and where they were extracted, all the vehicles and people it has carried, in fact the energy that lies behind it. If you see a ruined bridge you see even less, like a burned out star or galaxy. But just because you cannot see it that does not mean it is not there. It is particularly true for us – we are hidden to others. Our minds work in an occult way.

As far as our world is concerned very little of how it functions is apparent, and much is deliberately hidden. We do not know who really runs it, nor what they are aiming for.

I am not a physicist. I recall experiments at school including the creation of a vacuum. That was achieved by pumping air out of a flask. Now one could consider the flask to be empty as a result but that is not quite the case. It is filled with negative energy. If you make a small hole in it that negative energy sucks in air very fast. One could argue that pressure outside the flask pumps air into it. The opposite is a puncture in a tyre pumped up with air to a positive energy. If that makes sense – both are filled with energy but one cannot be seen. Space is considered to be a vacuum although there are a few atoms and molecules in each cubic metre.

I will try to explain why I think this is relevant. It takes energy to make a vacuum on Earth and energy to pressurise a container as you will know if you have pumped up a tyre and felt the heat on the pump. But this is because one is at a lower pressure and one at a higher pressure than our planet. We exist in the middle zone and the reason we have any pressure is because we have an atmosphere kept here by gravity. Gravity is a major force in space and only by spotting that there is some invisible form of gravity pulling light and constellations one way or another have they concluded there is ‘dark’ matter and energy. It takes a huge amount of energy to create a lump big enough to exert gravity. But there is also another force. The universe is accelerating outwards as if from an explosion, the big bang that started this. That is pushing against any gravitational force. Light or radiation is another force but collectively these massive forces of light and gravity are a fraction of the ‘dark’ energy.

You can put yourself under pressure – to succeed in life for example. You

need energy to achieve this, even to be different and at a different pressure to those around you. If you want ‘enlightenment’ you need a vast amount of energy to counter the gravitational pull of your peers. Some of us use what might be called tantric energy which is very powerful and quite occult. You also need energy to see the hidden energy that runs our world, and which formed it. Just as scientists cannot see dark matter and dark energy nor can they understand or trust in clairvoyance. The fact that it obviously exists can be seen in the vast pull it has exerted. Every religion has resulted from it and every culture and empire has resulted from that. To deny the unseen force shows science to be in its infancy as the article a few days ago here on paradigm shift suggests. Science definitely does not see or understand 96% of what there is but our scientists think they do.

Many diseases are considered occult or hidden. Corruption is very often hidden too. Crime seldom advertises its presence. These days we have ‘nominee shareholders’. That means we do not know who really own the shares that run the corporations and appoint their managers. There are also layers of ‘front’ corporations which are allowed to own shares in other corporations. Certainly we know that organised crime is raking in a vast fortune every year. Over a billion just in tiny Scotland. This money has to be invested. But if you try to find an estimate of how much the crime syndicates now own you will not find the figure. It is hidden along with where it is and who controls it. Trillions. Unlike nations which mostly are in debt. People own the bonds that provide loans to our governments, but what people? Occult people.

But at the same time we have to understand that this is how the world operates and how it is supported. We might not like the idea and that is one reason it is not forced upon us but kept concealed. Criminals these days own many legitimate concerns too. And they are extremely powerful. The difference between what we call a criminal and a law abiding entity is that one breaks the law and one does not. But in many ways they make the laws. When the banks caused the last financial crash we bailed them out. The pundits on television never explain where all the money went but we are still paying for it. However had we not done this the world would have been bankrupted, trade would have ground to a halt, hospitals would have collapsed, teachers would not have been paid, there would have been no food in the shops. Then law and order would have been threatened and martial law invoked.

So an important lesson for us is what we see as stability. Here is a tyre that has been pressurised. It is a vast tyre and a massive amount of energy, much of it dark, has been used to make this. But it is vulnerable. One pin prick can let the air out and only a tiny amount of energy is required to puncture it. In our lives we can put all our energy into making us what we are but one mistake can ruin us. A criminal conviction for example. We lose our job, our freedom, our home and often our family, perhaps our life.

There is little point investigating the dark energy but we have to recognise that we are founded on it. The Roman Empire made our western world and many of its laws. Much about Rome was very impressive and ingenious, but it was also very corrupt. If we consider it a democracy we are deluding ourselves. But it did care for its citizens first, after caring for its aristocrats. It did this by enslaving entire populations and exploiting other nations. We might like to think we have changed but we have not changed very much. The basic structure of our civilization goes back to Ancient Egypt. That was very similar, as was Ancient Greece. This is the planet on which we must scrape a living. This is what it is like. If we have continuous peace, great health care, live longer, get enough food and water then we will over populate the planet in a very short time. We are doing that anyway. It sounds great to have peace and live longer but our fertility levels decrease sharply to compensate. Natural disaster then begins to threaten us. These things are all inter related. There may be alternatives but when you have a million aphids on one plant that plant dies. So does the planet, or at least for a while.

Dark energy includes ‘karma’. This is the greatest power of all along with reality but neither can be observed by scientists it seems. I am a child scientist. I did experiments as a child and remember them now. One was how fizzy drinks became flat in warm weather when not kept in a pressurised container. That is to say they went flat in a drinking glass but not in the bottle. If one heated them the gas (carbon dioxide) was immediately expelled. Our neighbours had a machine for making fizzy drinks and using this were able to push the gas from cartridges into the drink. Today I read that our excessive carbon dioxide emissions have been absorbed by the oceans making them fizzy, or a bit acidic. The fizzy drink is carbonic acid. But suddenly they find that the acidic oceans, which are dissolving shellfish at an alarming rate and killing the plankton on which we depend for half our oxygen, are now beginning to emit the carbon dioxide. No wonder – the oceans are warming. It is the opposite of the fizzy drink machine now and becoming the glass of pop going flat in the sun. May I point out that this vast transfer of dangerous gas (dangerous to animal life) is happening in an occult way. We merely see the effects – dying oceans and now the most alarming spike in CO2 ever seen here. This spike accompanied every mass extinction (5 of them) although it is bigger now. Our scientists cannot see the karma. But then they are not paid to. We have dug up most of our fossil fuels over the last couple of centuries, burned them along with much of our forest. Did we really think that would end well? What sort of scientists do we have advising our governments? Why have our governments withdrawn support for solar panels – we had a grant for installing them on our houses and a good price for selling the surplus electricity. Why do they turn off the wind power when the electric grid is full? Why dont they turn off the gas guzzling generators first? Why do they want to frack Europe rather than allow more wind farms? Why do they insist that nuclear energy is clean? The answers to these questions are arrived at in a hidden way. Dark energy indeed. Meanwhile our environmentalists who worry so about these things ‘appear’ to be deranged.

We can cope with a little corruption. We can cope with occasional wars and famine but if we have major nuclear wars we cannot cope. When our economic systems collapse we have famine in our cities. When corruption is the norm and is uncontrolled the economic system fails. In our own small lives if we borrow too much and cannot keep up the repayments we lose our homes. That happens on the grand scale too. We can print money, pretend we are able to pay back our creditors while borrowing more but one day it all collapses. Empires collapse. They depend on their armies but the armies depend on getting paid and ensuring that their families are safe. Armies often take over empires. Rome had a very strong rule that no army could cross the River Rubicon. That was to ensure that the army did not take over the city and its government. Julius Caesar however took his army over and became dictator in the eyes of the government. They killed him but it was too late. Then came a line of emperors, increasingly corrupt, and martial law. This is what happens at the end of empires. There is a natural law or process involved but not one we can see, only its effect.

The universe is the same. It is founded on certain principles. There is only so much energy, so much matter. A puncture in our atmosphere will see us lose it. That was what the ozone hole threatened some decades ago. Too much heat increases the pressure. Certain gases cause that to happen. The ice caps melt. They do this every now and then which results in a shrinking land mass and more floods. Stability is a balancing act and if you cannot see the principles that underpin this, if you have more pressing needs and cross the Rubicon to patch up a failing system – then chaos results. It often has and always will. You have to be able to see the problem.

In our tribes the father is usually the head of the family. When he is too old his son may take over and put him in an old person’s home. These men are not always the best people to rule the families. Some gamble away the household money, some drink and are violent and abusive. They may expect their wives and children to work to keep them. Their actions may lead to homelessness. If all goes well for a family they will see the children educated and cared for, there will be food in the cupboard, money saved for emergencies and even some enjoyment, happiness in the home. But less and less families find that to be the case. These men may cause neighbour disputes, or get into trouble with the law. It is a common failing for men overwhelmed with debt to lie to their families and even to walk out on them when all falls down. In my work with vulnerable families, homelessness and poverty I usually found that the whole nightmare could have been avoided. The same was true with abused children. Abuse can be prevented if it is visible but its effect is visible and yet still unseen because so many involved are in denial of the obvious. Well this is true of countries and empires too. Lies compound the problem and prevent any remedial actions in time. Men are weak! But so often I have found that the women allowed this all to happen, pretending to themselves that it would be all right in the end. Believed the lies in spite of the evidence of their own eyes. That seems to be the role of our massive media.

This is the world of dark energy. It has a vast effect but cannot be seen. What is seen though is what happens as a result of it. You need your eyes open about everything around you from the micro level to the heavens above you. Our world needs leaders who can see, who do not lie, who are prepared to take remedial action in time and who are not abusive and violent. But at the same time we have to cope with this ever expanding population which is unsustainable and is a major reason for all the problems crashing down on our heads. There is a theory now that we do not have enough children to look after our elderly and we need more! Many families think that the bigger the family the greater its income. the greater its potency. A big political worry is that we will not be able to pay the pensions of the old because not enough young people are there to do that. They are extending the retirement age and cutting pensions but what we are seeing is that our living longer carries a mighty cost. At the same time on our farms we are killing animals at a younger and younger age. People want to eat lamb not mutton. Cattle are killed younger, before they display any signs of disease. Many are too heavy now for their legs. So are many people. One of our problems is that nature has always relied on the survival of the fittest and breeding rights have always been reserved for the fittest. To humans now that seems cruel, but no more cruel that relying on the survival of the richest which causes empires to collapse. Or the breeding of the fattest cattle. Look at the dark energy and try to understand what is happening to us. If we change the structure we lose our stability. This is what has happened to every empire and great family.

Of course we can change but we need to be honest and watch carefully. This is how experiments are done, or used to be done. You try something on a small scale first. But for one reason or another (ie money) we are abandoning all caution in our haste. We are also abandoning many of the other species here, while our nations are abandoning many of the other nations and many in their own populations. That creates a dark energy that for us is destructive. It is karmic. Using that word immediately causes our scientific establishment to dismiss anything else associated with it. But in our ancient and longer lived empires fate was respected and great care taken to avoid problems with it. Experts were consulted on it all the time. Even so emperors eventually ignored it along with the warnings they received and took their empires over the cliff.

But really this is about you. We are modern humans and have a yawning gap where our ‘after death’ existence is concerned, our individual karmic bill and our enlightenment. This is the only level at which humanity can be saved. Just because we are being swept along a rushing river to the falls and are quite unable to do anything to prevent that does not mean that we should abandon all hope and do nothing. This is exactly when we need as many as possible to be aware and looking out for any means by which we can rescue our species and nature itself. We are capable of that if we work on ourselves and have understanding and compassion for the reasons that we are now in such peril. It is not something we can blame anyone for because the dark energy, that 95% we cannot see, is making this all happen at once and until we can see the reality, the whole picture all we can do is speed to our collective doom.

Enlightenment is possible, but it is unpopular and derided as a science. In fact it is the real science, the knowledge of what is hidden and governs us in life and death.



The Clairvoyant & Enlightened Times

Issue 37 – 3 August 2017 – rattuos

In looking at what temples are and what they are supposed to do it makes sense to look at the first of them, as far as we know. This is on the Turkish side of the border with Syria on a small hill top and mysterious site used over around 2000 years and predating the first Egyptian megalithic building by 7000 years. Stonehenge may date back to 3500BC. Around 8000BC the entire site was buried in rubble, flint arrow heads and animal bones for reasons that are unclear. It is called Gobekli Tepe .

We might not expect much from our ancestors of 12000 years ago but should be stunned at what they achieved here. There were in the first stage around 200 T shaped pillars with various animals and pictograms magnificently carved in relief. Each pillar it is thought represents a human as some have loin cloths carved on them and arms. Although surrounded by a desolate stone landscape now, back then it was in a forest. In fact it was in a place where the first cultivated wheat strain emerged and the land around the site has been continuously cultivated ever since.

There seem to be 20 circles with thick walls and these pillars, and in the centre 2 larger pillars facing each other. The floor was composed of burned limestone, possibly polished. There may have been roofing over these circles. You may need to have a look:

And an article with photographs here:

Carving in relief is difficult. So is moving 20 ton boulders, smoothing them down and carefully inserting them in holes cut out of bedrock. (I have had enough trouble setting up two wooden posts I bought to hold my new garden gate and they are not straight). There are stone benches in the circles for seating. These were not houses. If there are graves they have not been found but there does seem some link with either ancestor worship or ’sky burial’ as many of the carvings show vultures. One curious fact is that over the years the older pillars were buried and new ones were inserted.

I will not go much further into speculating about this place but it seems to be our oldest temple by thousands of years. Just a across the border there is a full scale war taking place. Who knows how many other temples were buried from that time? Or why there is no rush to excavate the first found. Stonehenge is quite crude by comparison, the stones are not carved in relief with any symbols. At the time Gobekli was constructed there were no metal tools. They used flints on the hard limestone. At least the Egyptians had copper chisels. The next oldest finely carved temple may be the underground complex:

But this is from 3600BC.

Then we have an explosion of temple building in Egypt and across the Middle East to India. Some of these temples were built for the dead, some for deities. Here you can see a winged lion in a temple in Syria dating around 900BC

I have put that here because this is the time we are told that the first Temple of Solomon was built somewhere in Jerusalem on what appears to be a Phoenician design and which by all accounts had winged ‘Cherubims’ in its sanctuary. There is some doubt whether there was a temple built then, it is yet to be found and no archaeology is allowed where they think it may be. But it is this temple that has inspired so many others and is now so important, and it is this temple I wish to discuss – or at least the spiritual temple on which it is based.

“According to the Hebrew Bible, Solomon’s Temple, also known as the First Temple, was the Holy Temple (Hebrew: בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ‎‎: Beit HaMikdash) in ancient Jerusalem before its destruction by Nebuchadnezzar II after the Siege of Jerusalem of 587 BCE and its subsequent replacement with the Second Temple in the 6th century BCE.

The Hebrew Bible states that the temple was constructed under Solomon, king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah and that during the Kingdom of Judah, the temple was dedicated to Yahweh, and is said to have housed the Ark of the Covenant. Jewish historian Josephus says that “the temple was burnt four hundred and seventy years, six months, and ten days after it was built”, although rabbinic sources state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE, 165 years later than secular estimates.

Because of the religious sensitivities involved, and the politically volatile situation in Jerusalem, only limited archaeological surveys of the Temple Mount have been conducted. No archaeological excavations have been allowed on the Temple Mount during modern times. Therefore, there are very few pieces of archaeological evidence for the existence of Solomon’s Temple. An Ivory pomegranate which mentions priests in the house “of —h”, and an inscription recording the Temple’s restoration under Jehoash have both appeared on the antiquities market, but their authenticity has been challenged and they are the subject of controversy.” Wikipedia

It does not matter which temple we look at really. They all served a spiritual purpose whether it was a cult of the dead or for some god or goddess. At its most basic level these great architectural works were designed as a home for spirits, and I would say were intended to allow a spiritual place to meet up with a physical one. In them you will find water, even sacred pools or lakes. You may find fires tended, or lamps or candles burning. There may be clouds on incense, statues that are considered to hold spirits, symbols, texts, stained glass, gold and silver implements. Not to mention the unfortunate human habit of sacrificing animals and people in some of them and pouring or sprinkling their blood around them. Some are vast, almost mountains and some are tiny little caves with sacred artwork on the walls from the earliest times (up to 40000 years ago).

I have written about Solomon elsewhere here. For a wealthy and powerful king in the Middle East around 950BC there is a complete absence of evidence. The other kings in that area were recorded in contemporary records in the surrounding countries but there is no mention of a Solomon in the many records available, only in the bible scripture written centuries later. I will try to explain why.

The name Solomon is an anglicised one anyway but so is what it is based upon – a character called the Son of Man by us (Binadam in the scripture) and found in a book, or collection of scripts called the Book of Enoch. This book of prophecy was at one time kept with the New Testament although it is older. It was written between 300BC and 100BC, that is at least 100 years before Jesus who is said to have used the term and is considered by many to be the ‘Son of Man’. A careful look in the New Testament will show that not to be the case or at least that is not what he is recorded as having said.

In the spirit world time is very different. Our time now is well attested and always has been. We are in the ‘latter days’. And the prophecy about this Son of Man is for this time. It is the basis of many messiah cults, maitreyas, mahdis etc. Some call him the second Adam as the name Binadam suggests. We could call him the ‘spirit of mankind’ which is much closer to the real interpretation. Anyway you will find portrayals of this spirit in many temples where they are allowed. Many have claimed to be him, often we have thought we were in the latter days (‘the end is nigh’ is an ancient slogan). In India he is Shiva. In other places the second coming. He is also ‘Solomon’.

The Gobekli temple is just one that offered a home to the spirits of the dead and also this mysterious character that spirits have always spoken about to those who can communicate with them. If the role of a temple or sacred space is to offer a home, or temporary one, to a spiritual place then the role of a priest or priestess is to offer a temporary physical body to a spirit. Any number of people have offered this to the one we call the Son of Man, encouraging possession. Probably many more have pretended to be him for more political reasons. But those who were sincere mediums and were temporary homes are sometimes called the ‘league of Hermes’. There is a very long line of them going so far back it is impossible to see the end. And through this line comes prophecy, even communication with our own time.

Mediums are not perfect and clairvoyance is not a perfect art. But both do allow some communication with the spiritual world. So does sleep and meditation. However we are plagued with illusion in our material world and for every genuine medium there are many more who range from well meaning but deluded people to outright charlatans. What we can do though is look ourselves at our history, and our spiritual history and places, and grab a sense of what is behind all of this. Why we have religions, why we honour the dead. The danger is always obsession, and asserting that one particular thread is the whole carpet, all other threads are not.

Most of our churches offer space to the spiritual temple of Solomon. So do the Freemason squares, so do many magicians’ rituals. Pagan gatherings are just as likely to be doing this as the most ornate cathedrals. It is why I maintain that a summer solstice festival in Somerset in 1971 succeeded where many others have failed. But all of those that succeed are linked to a timeless entity. They are visited by spirits that existed long ago and are yet to come. This is the hidden dimension in all of us if we develop it and seek it. But you need clairvoyance to see it, hear it or feel it. And that is why I encourage all to develop that art rather than perhaps only to develop muscles for more physical exertions. Never become obsessed and only allow this state which has to be deemed ‘possession’ on your own terms. Stay in charge, do not take orders from those you invite into your house. Never, ever behave in an anti-social way because of this. You do not know the spirits. Sacrifice of any kind is abhorrent to those we would want to meet. Murder of any kind is against our law. They are gentle beings attracted to gentle beings. The ‘angra mainyu’ as some angry spirits are called are attracted by and to warmongers and threaten us all. So be intelligent and be careful. Enlightenment is possible in every life but any obsession makes it impossible to see the whole which is what it is.

I have encountered this temple in many places in my life. It comes and it goes. There is no need to try to hold onto it. We do not eat all day and all night. What will make you special as a human is the ability to house and communicate with the spiritual. But it comes slowly and can end abruptly. It loves innocence and loathes those that seek to use it. I put bird food out every day. The birds love it and visit my garden. I do not have nets to catch them. It is freely given for the moments we come together. If they do not come they do not come. I will still try the next day. It is not a duty or a chore. It is not to impress others, nor even to impress the birds. I wonder how long humans have put out food and water for our other wonderful species, to befriend and to meet them, not to eat them. I wonder how long they have done this with the spirits. I am in my latter days but these are the things that mean the most to me. I have had to work to keep myself and my family. I have had struggles like everyone else. I have had delusions like everyone else too. But without my spiritual life I would feel half the man. It often seems to me that I have more friends there than here, and it is a sentiment that many older people have confided to me over the years. Our balance shifts and one day we are all over there and just a memory remains fleetingly of us over here, sometimes preserved by those we leave behind.




The Clairvoyant & Enlightened Times

Issue 36 – 2 August 2017 – rattuos

We can identify ourselves in many ways but underpinning most will be the fact that we are families, tribes and a species. There may be huge differences between us culturally but genetically the differences are tiny and we should not be surprised as every flower is different. If we go back far enough we find that we all have a common ancestor and if so we can liken our family to a tree. Family trees have been depicted since antiquity and the largest is said to be that of Confucius which shows 80 generations and has 2 million living descendants (I would suggest that there are many more in fact). It is not so much an analogy but a fact if we look at our tribe in a particular way. We are but a generation of leaves blossoms, seeds on an old tree that has produced billions of us and continues to do so. That its days are numbered is most unfortunate but something that happens to all trees.

I mention the family tree because today am looking at the core of Egyptian religion and magic and as in so many other cultures we find a tree. The Nordic religion had a world tree called Yggdrasil, and most cultures have a tree or a pillar which is the same. We still have people dancing round Maypoles if rather less that we once did. The tree is representative of fertility, the life death cycle, rebirth and much else but for now try to think of it as the human tree and something we although a fleeting part of might wish to be able to contact, to know and be known by.

In Egypt this tree is called the Djed pillar. It looks like a tree with four branches at the top sticking out at both sides. There were over the course of Egyptian history such pillars made and used in rituals much like the Maypole. People wore them round their necks as charms. Raising the Djed, that is pulling the pillar upright, was a central part of all of this and considered very significant. In Tibet you will still see many monks and people pulling upright a big prayer flag mast at the foot of the sacred Mount Kailash. And if we look inside the Great Pyramid we will find that there is a central chamber and above it a number of vast stones considered to relieve the massive pressure upon it from the weight above. But if we look at the structure as an architect would have we see the Djed pillar at its heart. Djed is given the meaning ‘stability’.

We have to look at very late tales of many of the original myths, usually recorded for us by the Greeks thousands of years later and sadly the tales take a life of their own over the millennia but a very interesting one certainly ties the djed to the family tree. The myth as recorded was that after the king Osiris was lured into a snug fitting, bejewelled casket to try it our for size he was locked into it by a group of elders led by Sutekh who threw it into the Nile. This river carried it out to sea and hence to Byblos in Lebanon where some magic tree grew around it and ended up being used as a pillar in the palace there. Isis eventually found it, opened it up and in some way revived the corpse so that she was able to conceive the child Horus. I would say that the story is one which tells us that the Lebanese monarchy at an early time was considered to be the direct line, the family tree that sprang from or included the Egyptian king we know as Osiris. Even the British monarchy has at times claimed direct descent from some divine line, it is what monarchies do. The pharaohs certainly did.

But we need to go back to the two dynasties that pioneered the pyramids to find out a bit more of what is behind the myth. At approximately 2600BC what we call the Old Kingdom started in Egypt. As far as the Egyptians were concerned this was the beginning of the Third Dynasty and the looked much further back to the first pharaohs of the First Dynasty and the many kings before them. But the Third Dynasty is a good place to start because the first king in that was Djoser ably assisted by his sage and architect Imhotep. There is no doubt both existed and between them they built what is called the Step Pyramid, a massive engineering feat that is still standing. 75 years later a new Dynasty began and this was the age of the Great Pyramid and most of the other massive pyramids. Khufu (often called Cheops) was the pharaoh for whom the Great Pyramid was built possibly by his son Djedefre, whose own perfect pyramid overlooking it from a hilltop has been levelled over thousands of years by caravans taking the excellent stone for building projects in Cairo. In Giza we now see the three vast pyramids of Khufu, Khafre (son of Khufu who succeeded Djedefre) and Menkaure (Khufu‘s grandson and son of Khafre). But Khufu also had another son called Djedi. Or that is what we have gleaned from the tomb inscriptions which are con temporary and much more reliable than stories handed down for 2600 years.

Which brings us to one of the most famous tales in all Egyptian history the meeting of Khufu and the magician Djedi. This tale was preserved in the Westcar papyrus and was written perhaps around 1800BC during one of the Intermediate periods when the Hyksos tribe had taken over the throne. The term Hyksos is not specific (literally ‘rulers of foreign lands‘) but they were considered to have come from what are now Syria and Lebanon, a mass immigration perhaps as had been happening with the Canaanites from what we call Palestine and Israel. I mention this because that is when the story was put on the papyrus. There is little doubt however that it was an ancient and well known tale. But before I start on Djedi I will mention the gully-gully men. When I was about 10 I was shown an old film taken by our headmaster when he sailed through Suez in about 1930. It showed the magician who came on board and produced chicken after chicken, at least twenty of them appearing out of nowhere. He did other tricks but that was the one I remember. The late magician Paul Daniels also wrote about seeing this in 1956 and how influential it was on him. Here is another:

“We spent three years in Singapore, and returned by boat. My earliest memory is going through the Suez Canal when an entertainer and magician, known as a Gully Gully Man, came aboard. I remember his long robe. He produced a chicken from behind my ear and I remember going ballistic with terror, and my parents hooting with laughter.”

A lot of people saw this – almost every Briton sailing to the Far East at one time and you will find many reminiscences on the net (gully-gully, hully gully, gale gale etc). But the origin is exceptionally ancient. The bible mentions the Egyptian magicians and tricks they did with snakes. Then a look at what this is really about. I note how similar the phrase ‘raising the djed’ is to ‘raising the dead’ and of course they have a lot in common. Conjuring tricks perhaps.

We are fortunate in knowing that they are tricks. Having had a very good conjuror or magician working on me one to one I have been staggered when he achieved the seemingly impossible. Getting a coin from my pocket into a beer bottle we had just finished when it was much too small to get through the top and would not come out. He showed me later how his coin was cut in half and joined with rubber almost impossible to see, certainly not through the green glass bottle. It bent in half, went in and popped back into full size. That might have kept me wondering for many years as have some of the other things he showed me.

The ancients did not know they were tricks, they thought they were miracles or magic. And those able to perform them were very highly regarded. Almost every court had one, the jester. It is one of the tarot cards. And these people kept alive something in our societies but based on falsehood. It goes way back even before Egypt to the conjuring of fire.


Here is the tale of Djedi (whose name is spelled in Egyptian with 2 Djed pillars and a reed):

“According to the Westcar Papyrus, prince Djedefhor (one of Khufu’s sons whose sarcophagus is in Cairo Museum) brings up the story of Dedi. He stands before his father, king Khufu, and says: “There is only speaking of miracles which happened a long time ago, something known by past generations only. Truth and falsehood cannot be distinguished here. But there is someone under thy majesty´s own lifetime who is not known, someone who is able to make a ignoramus become wise.” Khufu asks: “What’s the meaning of this, Djedefhor, my son?” Djedefhor answers: “There’s a commoner named Dedi, living in Djed-Sneferu. (rattuos: Sneferu was the first pharaoh of the 4th Dynasty who had at least two grand pyramids to his name – the ‘Bent’ pyramid and the ‘Red’ pyramid. He was the father of Khufu and had a long reign) He’s a simple citizen, but 110 years old, eats 500 loaves of bread, a shoulder of beef and drinks 100 jars of beer every day. He is capable of resurrecting decapitated beings. He is also said to be able to make wild lions so obedient that the animal would follow him with a cord dragging on the ground. Furthermore, this Dedi has knowledge of the number* of Iput in the wenetsanctuary of Thoth.” The pharaoh spent a good deal of time to seek for these chambers, for he planned to build something similar to his horizon. And Khufu orders: “You thyself, Djedefhor, my son, may bring him to me!”

And so Djedefhor arranges his journey during the first month of the schemu-season and travels to Djed-Sneferu. He finds Dedi and invites the old man to the king’s palace with the words: “Your condition is equal to someone who lives from aging and to someone who sleeps until dawn, free of illness and wheezing. For ‘aging’ is the time of dying, the time of the preparing the burial and the time of being buried. This is the questioning about the condition of a noble man. I have come to summon you in order of my father, justified, that you may eat from the delicacies my father gives, the food of his followers. And then he may guide you to the ancestors which are in the necropolis now.” Dedi replies: “Welcome, welcome, Djedefhor, son of the king, beloved of his father! May you be praised by your father, Khufu the justified. May he let your place be at the front of all time-honored ones. May thine Ka successfully champion all things against any enemy. May thine Ba know the ways that lead to the gateway of the mummified deceased.” Djedefhor brings Dedi to the harbor and makes a boat prepared for traveling. The old man promises to follow Djedefhor, on the condition that he may bring his books and scholars with him. Djedefhor accepts, and both men travel to Khufu’s royal palace.

Djedefhor enters the palace and goes immediately to his father, king Khufu. The prince says: “May thy majesty live, be blessed and being prosperous! I have brought Dedi to you!” Khufu replies: “Go and bring him to me!” Then Khufu takes place in the royal audience-hall. The Pharaoh receives Dedi with the words: “What is it, Dedi, this denying to have seen you ever before?” Dedi answers: “Oh sovereign, my lord! Only the one who is summoned is one who will come. I was summoned, and now see, oh sovereign, my lord, I have come.” The pharaoh continues: “Is it true, this talk-about that you could mend a severed head?” Dedi says: “Yes, oh sovereign, my lord. May you live, be blessed and prosperous. I know how to do that.” Khufu replies: “May a prisoner, who is jailed, be brought to me, so that his execution may be enforced.”. Dedi refuses with the words: “Not to make a human suffer, oh sovereign, my lord! May you live, be blessed and prosperous. You see, it was never allowed to do something like that on the noble flock.” Dedi chooses three animals instead – first a goose. He decapitates the goose and places her head at the eastern side of the audience hall, the body at the western side. Then Dedi utters a secret spell and the head of the goose stands up, starting to waddle. Then the body of the goose stands up and waddles, too. Both body-parts move into equal directions, then melt together. The resurrected goose now leaves the hall cackling. The same performance is done with an undefined water bird and a bull. Both animals are brought successfully back to life, too. Now the king says: “It is said that you know the number* of Iput inside the wenet-sanctuary of Thoth. Now?” Dedi replies: “May you be praised, oh sovereign, my lord! I don’t know their number. But I know where they can be found.” Khufu asks: “Where is it?” Dedi answers: “There is a box of scrolls, made of flint, which is stored in a room called ‘archive’ at Heliopolis.” The king orders: “Take that box!” Dedi replies: “May your highness be prosperous and blessed, I’m not the one who can bring it to you.” Khufu asks: “Who may be the one who could bring it to me?” Dedi answers: “The eldest of the three children in the womb of Rededjet, he will bring it to you.” The king says: “I really wish all these things you say. Who is it, this Rededjet?” Dedi replies: “It’s the wife of a wab-priest of the god Ra, lord of Sachebu. The god has adumbrated, that the eldest of the three shall worship as a high priest of Heliopolis over the whole realm.” The king’s mood becomes grim after this. Dedi asks: “What is that heart of thine, oh sovereign, my lord, becoming so sad! Is it because of the children I have adumbrated? First your son, then his son and then one of them.” Khufu replies: “When will this Rededjet give birth?” Dedi says: “It will happen during the first month of the peret-season, on the fifteenth day.″ Khufu becomes indignant: “But it’s when the canal-of-two-Mugilidae is cut off!? I would even work with my very own hands to enter them! And then I will visit that temple of Ra, lord of Sachebu.” And Dedi says: “Then I will make the waters at the fordable spots of the canal-of-two-Mugilidae become four cubits in height for you.” Khufu stands up and orders: “Have Dedi assigned to a place within the palace of my son Djedefhor where he shall live from now on. His daily gainings be 1000 loaves of bread, 100 jars of beer, one neat and 100 bundles of field garlic.” And all things are done as ordered.

Modern analysis

Historians and Egyptologists such as Adolf Erman and Kurt Heinrich Sethe once thought the tales of Westcar Papyrus were mere folklore. Magical tricks that show animals being decapitated and their heads being replaced were performed as recently as a few decades ago, though today they are rarely shown because of aesthetical and ethical misgivings….” Wikipedia

So is this a lot of fuss about nothing? I will go back 75 years before this was supposed to have happened, back to Imhotep who designed the Step Pyramid. He is ascribed semi-divine powers – a healer, an architect and much more, and like Djedi a ‘commoner‘:

Imhotep (/ɪm’hoʊtɛp/;[1] Egyptian: ỉỉ-m-ḥtp *jā-im-ḥatap, “the one who comes in peace”; fl. late 27th century BC) was an Egyptian chancellor to the pharaoh Djoser, probable architect of the step pyramid, and high priest of the sun god Ra at Heliopolis. Very little is known of Imhotep as a historical figure, but in the 3000 years following his death, he was gradually glorified and deified.

Today, outside of the egyptological community, he is referred to as a polymath, poet, judge, engineer, magician, scribe, astronomer, astrologer, and especially a physician. These claims are founded on the legends that flourished in the millennia after his death, not on historical records. No text from his lifetime mentions these capacities and no text mentions his name in the first 1200 years following his death.

Apart from the three short contemporary inscriptions that establish him as chancellor to the pharaoh, the first text to reference Imhotep dates to the time of Amenhotep III (c. 1391 – 1353 BC). It is addressed to the owner of a tomb, and reads:

The wab-priest may give offerings to your ka. The wab-priests may stretch to you their arms with libations on the soil, as it is done for Imhotep with the remains of the water bowl. (rattuos: The Egyptian scribes always poured out a little water for their patron god Thoth before starting work each day)

— D. Wildung (1977), Egyptian Saints – Deification in Pharaonic Egypt, p. 34.

It appears that this libation to Imhotep was done regularly, as they are attested on papyruses associated to statues of Imhotep until the Late Period (c. 664-332 BC). To Wildung, this cult holds its origin in the slow evolution of the memory of Imhotep among intellectuals from his death onwards. To Alan Gardiner, this cult is so distinct from the offerings usually made to commoners that the epithet of “demi-god” is likely justified to describe the way Imhotep was venerated in the New Kingdom (c. 1550-1077 BC).

The first references to the healing abilities of Imhotep occur from the Thirtieth Dynasty (c. 380-343 BC) onwards, some 2200 years after his death.

He was one of only two commoners ever to be deified after death (the other being Amenhotep, son of Hapu). The center of his cult was in Memphis. The location of Imhotep’s self-built tomb was well hidden from the beginning and it remains unknown, despite efforts to find it. The consensus is that it is hidden somewhere at Saqqara.” Wikipedia

* Mackenzie translates ‘number of chambers in the sanctuary of Thoth’ as ‘secret of the dwelling of Thoth. Khufu is more interested in this that anything which is not really made obvious in then translation above. The story of Djedi makes me think of bilocation. The ‘djed’ is everywhere and Reddjedet is supposedly the mother of the first three kings of the next (5th) Dynasty. Unfortunately Khufu will not be alive when the first king would be able to reveal the secret.

“ How Pharaoh Userkaf founded this dynasty is not known for certain. The Papyrus Westcar, which was written during the Middle Kingdom, tells a story of how king Khufu of Dynasty IV was given a prophecy that triplets born to the wife of the priest of Ra in Sakhbu would overthrow him and his heirs, and how he attempted to put these children – named Userkaf, Sahure, and Neferirkare – to death; however in recent years, scholars have recognized this story to be at best a legend, and admit their ignorance over how the transition from one dynasty to another transpired.” Wikipedia

We had better look at Userkaf but I note that the last (8th) king of the 5th was Djedkare Isesi who was a great reforming pharaoh and the object of a cult that lasted many years. What is most significant about the 5th Dynasty to my mind is the fact some of the pharaohs (not the first three or if they did the texts did not survive/have not been found) had the ‘pyramid texts’ inscribed on the inside walls of their pyramids which preserved them for us in the oldest form we have.

Userkaf (meaning “his soul is strong” or “his Ka (or soul) is powerful”) was the founder of the Fifth dynasty of Egypt and the first pharaoh to start the tradition of building sun temples at Abusir. He ruled from 2494 to 2487 BC and constructed the pyramid of Userkaf complex at Saqqara. Userkaf may have been a grandson of Djedefre by his daughter, Neferhetepes…..

The Sun temple of Userkaf was an Ancient Egyptian temple dedicated to the sun god Ra built by pharaoh Userkaf, the founder of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt, at the beginning of the 25th century BCE. The sun temple of Userkaf lies between the Abusir pyramid field to the south and the locality of Abu Gurab to the north, some 15 km (9.3 mi) south of modern-day Cairo. The ancient name of the temple was Nekhen-Re meaning the “Stronghold of Ra”. The temple complex comprised several parts: on a low hill situated on the desert edge was the main temple which could be accessed via a causeway from a valley temple, located nearer to the area of cultivation and the Nile.….” Wikipedia

Although used for many years and visited over 1000 years later according to an inscription found this pyramid and its temples were too badly ruined to tell us much about Userkaf. He was followed by Sahure one of the most important kings of the Old Kingdom. Sahure built a pyramid

“….The causeway and mortuary temple of his pyramid complex were once adorned by over 10,000 m2 (110,000 sq ft) of fine reliefs, which made them renowned in antiquity. The architects of Sahure’s pyramid complex introduced the use of palmiform columns (that is columns whose capital has the form of palm leaves), which would soon become a hallmark of ancient Egyptian architecture. Sahure is also known to have constructed a sun temple called “The Field of Ra“, and although it is yet to be located it is presumably in Abusir as well……Trade contacts with Byblos certainly took place during Sahure’s reign and indeed excavations of the temple of Baalat-Gebal yielded an alabaster bowl inscribed with Sahure’s name….” Wikipedia

His funerary cult continued for centuries and a statue of him was made by a much later opharaoh reflecting something not evident now unless it is the Dedi story. The third king was

Neferirkare Kakai was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the third king of the Fifth Dynasty. He succeeded his father Sahure on the throne and was in turn succeeded by his son Neferefre. His praenomen, Neferirkare, means “Beautiful is the Soul of Ra“....From the large size of his mortuary complex at Abusir, he was an important king, but since the Palermo stone fragments after his rule, little is actually known about his reign….Neferirkare’s reign was unusual for the significant number of surviving contemporary records which describe him as a kind and gentle ruler. When Rawer, an elderly nobleman and royal courtier, was accidentally touched by the king’s mace during a religious ceremony—a dangerous situation which could have caused this official’s death or banishment from court since the Pharaoh was viewed as a living God in Old Kingdom mythology—Neferirkare quickly pardoned Rawer and requested that no harm should occur to the latter for the incident. As Rawer gratefully states in an inscription from his Giza tomb:

“Now the priest Rawer in his priestly robes was following the steps of the king in order to conduct the royal costume, when the sceptre in the king’s hand struck the priest Rawer’s foot. The king said, “You are safe”. So the king said, and then, “It is the king’s wish that he be perfectly safe, since I have not struck at him. For he is more worthy before the king than any man.”

Similarly, Neferirkare gave the Priest of Ptah Ptahshepses the unprecedented honor of kissing his feet. Finally, when the Vizier Washptah suffered a stroke while attending court, the king quickly summoned the palace’s chief doctors to treat his dying Vizier. When Weshptah died, Neferirkare was reportedly inconsolable and retired to his personal quarters to mourn the loss of his friend. The king then ordered the purification of Weshptah’s body in his presence and ordered an ebony coffin made for the deceased Vizier. Weshptah was buried with special endowments and rituals courtesy of Neferirkare. The records of the king’s actions are inscribed in Weshptah’s tomb itself and emphasize Neferirkare’s humanity towards his subjects.” Wikipedia

So we do not know much more about the secret of Thoth‘s dwelling (who he is and where and when he lives) even if Userkaf would have been able to tell Khufu who appears to have wanted the poor chap dead. But what is significant about the story is that Djedi having given somebody the impression that he knew the secret clammed up when asked by Khufu and gave him directions to unborn children that the pharaoh could not possible follow. Perhaps one needs to be an Ancient Egyptian to understand what fascinated them about us and our time and of course that ‘field of reeds‘ in the far off (in distance and time) Somerset field overlooked by Glastonbury Tor with its scale model of the Great Pyramid of Khufu.